Python Mock Requests Status Code

If you need a quick web server running and you don't want to mess with setting up apache or something similar, then Python can help. By using the Python extension, you make VS Code into a great lightweight Python IDE (which you may find a productive alternative to PyCharm). This library enables the easy creation and use of Mock objects for Python unit testing. Examples of the Complete Version 4 Signing Process (Python) This section shows example programs written in Python that illustrate how to work with Signature Version 4 in AWS. mock() annotation to the class so that each test method will be passed a mock object. How to Install Requests. Send email to the developer [Powered. In this step, you'll modify your code sample so that instead of retrieving information about the GoogleDevelopers YouTube channel, it retrieves information about your YouTube channel. data attribute, which is similar to request. Further information about what can be matched from a request can be found at Request Matching. @requests_mock. We're the creators of Elasticsearch, Kibana, Beats, and Logstash -- the Elastic Stack. I am trying to learn python by writing a bot to scrape content off reddit. for example for the above request I got the following header:. This is because I am not really testing the request itself or the submitted data. I do a loop of requests and unfortunately sometimes there happens a server timeout. This is the first part of a series on serverless development with Python. Thanks for sharing such a wonderful article with us on Hands on tutorial to perform Data Exploration using Elastic Search and Kibana (using Python) We are also providing some good information about Big Data , so for more information viste our website Thank you. The best solution looks like HTTPretty. Build and debug your Python apps with Visual Studio Code, and push your apps to the cloud with a few clicks. Request Library. Generally, what you're looking for when you perform your own requests are status codes in the 200s. We care about testing how our code handles different, specific responses. Falcon also assumes a 200 and has helper constants for common statuses. I need to do a better job mocking out HTTP requests to allow me to test all this web API code I've written. Python Requests Response Status Codes print(r. For this, you configure the method's integration request and integration response to associate a response with a given status code. Mock REST service. Additionally, the HTTP status code may be displayed in the client browser. It allows you to replace parts of your system under test with mock objects and make assertions about how they have been used. It abstracts the complexities of making requests behind a beautiful, simple API so that you can focus on interacting with services and consuming data in your application. Along the way it was remarked that the core-mentors group has been a success in involving new contributors. After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds with an HTTP response message. assertEqual (visit_ustack (), status_code) 这个测试类和我们刚才写的第一个测试类一样,包含两个测试,只不过这次不是显示创建一个mock对象并且进行替换,而是使用了patch. Python Social Auth is a great library to integrate 3rd party logins into your web application. HTTP_100_CONTINUE HTTP_101_SWITCHING_PROTOCOLS Successful - 2xx. Even more handy is somewhat controversially-named setdefault(key, val) which sets the value of the key only if it is not already in the dict, and returns that value in any case:. Python testing in Visual Studio Code. Example Code for. The Requests module lets you integrate your Python programs with web services, while the Beautiful Soup module is designed to make screen-scraping get done quickly. With the help of this little HTTP server you can turn any directory in your system into your web server directory. If the response status code is 200, it returns True, if status code is 404, it returns False. HTTP Status Codes. The standard http status codes used are. Now, we'll test if it works as expected. A utility for mocking out the Python Requests library. The following are code examples for showing how to use mock. 2XX The response code in this range implies the API call has succeeded. The teardown code is tightly coupled with the setup code for one resource. tearDownModule-----Ran 2 tests in 0. I am a new Python user. python example. Thank you for reporting the bug, which will now be closed. We are thinking of writing an ABAP code to set the request status to green whenever it is stuck on yellow status. They are extracted from open source Python projects. What Is Requests Module? Requests is a Python module that you can use to send all kinds of HTTP requests. If these steps don't resolve the issue, you'll need to request a repair. x mock simplejson requests nose covarage テストのデファクト あまりまとまっ…. How to Install Requests. Mockito is a spying framework originally based on the Java library with the same name. HTTP defines forty standard status codes that can be used to convey the results of a client's request. To run python 3. With this setup, developers can makes requests to the mock endpoint, and get started on front-end development or writing tests based on the mock response returned from the mock endpoint. Adran y Gymraeg. The final step defines an imposter that contains that stub:. Requests does not use the dict interface internally; it's just for compatibility with external client code. About this Episode Testing apps that use requests without using mock. $ sudo apt-get install python python-requests python-pytest pep8 python-magic python-mock python3-requests python3-pytest python3-magic python3-mock Then checkout 'devel' branch for development, commit your changes. Programming. When you patch a class, then that class is replaced with a mock. 10 Status Code Definitions. def _mock_response( self, status=200, content="CONTENT", json_data=None, raise_for_status=None): """ since we typically test a bunch of different requests calls for a service, we are going to do a lot of mock responses, so its usually a good idea to have a helper function that builds these things """ mock_resp = mock. We'll use the requests module and httpbin. The short answer is 'most of the times'. Requests: HTTP for Humans If you want to request data from webservers, the traditional way to do that in Python is using the urllib library. We will have a closer look at the HTTP/HTTPs calls using the python requests library and on the interaction with HTTP based interfaces. The service is useful and straightforward. Python testing in Visual Studio Code. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Python Mock Library Brought to you by: Code Tickets tools Bugs. How can I get Http Status Code?. You should checkout the docs for more information. "Mock requests. Python testing in Visual Studio Code. Session taken from open source projects. End of Service for the Weather Underground API. The results are in! See what nearly 90,000 developers picked as their most loved, dreaded, and desired coding languages and more in the 2019 Developer Survey. com is an easy to reference database of HTTP Status Codes with their definitions and helpful code references all in one place. Python Mock/MagicMock enables us to reproduce expensive objects in our tests by using built-in methods (__call__, __import__) and variables to "memorize" the status of attributes, and function calls. Using a Context Manager. - getsentry/responses Join GitHub today. status_code is the HTTP status code. Python: Simple Rest API Example and String Formatting we need to use the requests library in Python. The Mock Server is automatically created each time you publish your API Description. They are extracted from open source Python projects. although the virtualenv folder is created along with a bunch of folders and files. WireMock Mock your APIs for fast, robust and comprehensive testing. HEAD: The entity headers are in the message body. Python mock. 000s OK Run tests via unittest. You can unlock unlimited requests by becoming a subscriber on Patreon or create a new URL. How can I get Http Status Code?. The requests library is the de facto standard for making HTTP requests in Python. It is maintained by the same community that maintains Python. It is really a nice IDE to develop in python. mock in Python. This means that stubs will return the response when someone sends a GET request to the root URL of the mock service. Now, we'll test if it works as expected. テストを書くときに、外部の HTTP API を叩く処理が組み込まれている場合は、何かしらモックが必要です。どう書くのがスマートなのか良くわからないので色々試してみる 準備するモノ python 2. This causes pip to run python setup. If you'd like to test this code (python3, using the links above, form_url and post_url) with the username miguel and the password password. def _mock_response( self, status=200, content="CONTENT", json_data=None, raise_for_status=None): """ since we typically test a bunch of different requests calls for a service, we are going to do a lot of mock responses, so its usually a good idea to have a helper function that builds these things """ mock_resp = mock. Mock() # mock raise_for. Python Tutorial: Python HTTP Web Services, We can identify two major classes of Web services, REST-compliant Web services, in which the primary purpose of the service is to manipulate XML representations of Web resources using a uniform set of stateless operations; and arbitrary Web services, in which the service may expose an arbitrary set of operations. HTTP Status Codes. The disadvantages of using this method are that the code can be more cumbersome than other HTTP libraries, and it does not provide more advanced. When to use mock library. Or bring the tools you’re used to. foo_model_instance = models. The output signifies that the request we made is a proper request. Source code from this tutorial is available on GitHub. To run python 3. This means you access the “mock instance” by looking at the return value of the mocked class. py setUpModule foo setUpClass foo setUp foo tearDown. Testing ajax calls. Step 3: Run an authorized request. zip py26 runtests: commands[0]. LWPCookieJar and FileCookieJar. http is also a module that defines a number of HTTP status codes and associated Added 421 MISDIRECTED_REQUEST status code The Python Software Foundation is a. The Mock objects can contain expectations about how they are used, and can validate themselves against the class being mocked. By voting up you can indicate which examples are most useful and appropriate. Sign in to request a repair or see Getting your Xbox console or Kinect. A 4XX response indicates that there was something wrong with the request. if response. It should be in every SEO strategists & consultants toolkit!". We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. The docstring of each method in the code references the endpoint it implements. Think of modules as a sort of code template. Tying these tests to real requests means. The source files for the examples, plus additional example programs, are available in the AWS Code Catalog. The proxies parameter isn’t used until it reaches the Transport Adapter at the bottom of the Requests stack. When you patch a class, then that class is replaced with a mock. if response. If we talk about Python, it comes with two built-in modules, urllib and urllib2, to handle HTTP related operation. The HTTP response status code 301 Moved Permanently is used for permanent URL redirection; 302 Found for a temporary redirection. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. Status Code Lookup¶ requests. Each responder also receives a Response object that can be used for setting the status code, unittest. Book Description. py内でグローバル変数として展開されていますのでapp. This concurrency level might not be sufficient under one or more of the following conditions:. This ends up being a huge benefit when you want to fiddle with scope to save time on testing. I was searching for flight tickets and noticed that ticket prices fluctuate during the day. 10 Status Code Definitions. 1 400 Bad Request And here's what it actually gives me: The underlying connection was closed. Mockito is a spying framework originally based on the Java library with the same name. Mocking is a library for testing in. It appears that this exception is raised when: - the status line is empty - the 'strict' flag is on and the status line didn't start with 'HTTP/' - the 'status' part of the status line is not convertible to an int - the status code ('status' part of the status line, converted to an. How to call a REST API using Python using json request/response- Crucible Development Amit Pandey Mar 06, 2013 I am a newbie to python and am trying to create a script to login to crucible and use the token to pass to other services. mock is now part of the Python standard library, available as unittest. To recap, sockets are. Status-Line = HTTP-Version SP Status-Code SP Reason-Phrase CRLF. 【今更】Python初心者がrequestsを使ってHTTPクライアントを実装してみた(ヘッダ操作込) self. 11 support to our webhook code. Often making code testable, makes it better too. HTTP Status Codes. json()['status'] == 'okay': response is actually a mock, response. In this tutorial, you will learn how to use this library to send simple HTTP. Mock operation then selects the correct response from the list of responses and delivers it back to the web service. 以前、wsgi-interceptを使った時に、PythonのHTTPライブラリとして、Requestsを使いました。 Requests: HTTP for Humans — Requests 2. The following code examples show how to match against different elements of a request using different matchers. The requests library is the de facto standard for making HTTP requests in Python. Figure out some other assertions you can make - for example, that the number of items returned is. TextTestRunner ¶ >>> import unittest >>> class TestFoo ( unittest. WireMock Mock your APIs for fast, robust and comprehensive testing. The mission of the Python Software Foundation is to promote, protect, and advance the Python programming language, and to support and facilitate the growth of a diverse and international community of Python programmers. Python Requests have a built-in JSON decoder, which helps in parsing JSON code. request works, we write a JSON version of our expected data into the response and end it. The code below sets up a link to the AuthSubRequest page. The second part of the stub is the responses array. The short answer is ‘most of the times’. I built a small program to automatically collect the data from the web — a so-called scraper. I am trying to use Pythons mock package to mock Pythons requests module. In this tutorial, you will learn how to use this library to send simple HTTP. post, the response is a Mock object, which as you remember, returns all attributes and properties as more Mocks. txt', 'w') as infile: block. @requests_mock. Working Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 16. POST requests at the same time in python http. To reiterate, Requests is a Python library. In this step, you'll modify your code sample so that instead of retrieving information about the GoogleDevelopers YouTube channel, it retrieves information about your YouTube channel. We'll use the requests module and httpbin. The Mock objects can contain expectations about how they are used, and can validate themselves against the class being mocked. By using the Python extension, you make VS Code into a great lightweight Python IDE (which you may find a productive alternative to PyCharm). The following are code examples for showing how to use requests. Responses are grouped in five classes: Informational responses (100–199), Successful responses (200–299), Redirects (300–399), Client errors (400–499), and Server errors (500–599). 1 requests using Python. request works, we write a JSON version of our expected data into the response and end it. Requests does not use the dict interface internally; it's just for compatibility with external client code. By voting up you can indicate which examples are most useful and appropriate. TestCase): In this test, I want to test the case where the POST fails and the case where it succeeds and returns valid JSON. Concurrency. HTTP_100_CONTINUE HTTP_101_SWITCHING_PROTOCOLS Successful - 2xx. Using a Context Manager In this example, we explicitly patch a function within a block of code, using a context manager. USES=python now also exports a PY_FLAVOR variable that contains the (Only the first 15 lines of the commit message are shown above ) Mon, 2 Oct 2017 [ 18:24 sunpoet] 451087 www/Makefile 451087 www/py-requests-mock 451087 www/py-requests-mock/Makefile 451087 www/py-requests-mock/distinfo 451087 www/py-requests-mock/pkg-descr. 404 or 200; text; 回應的內容,自動猜測編碼 decode 為 unicode; url; response 回應的網址; connection; response 使用的 requests. MaxRequests }} requests and can't accept more webhooks. Ideally you'll want it to post updates on some Queue or set and notify some Condition-protected shared flag variable every 200KB, then the main process can block on the Queue or Condition and kill the child process if it times out. [00:02:06] Common ones here are 200 OK, that means everything went fine, kinda the standard response for successful HTTP requests. Instead of calling the actual implementation, you would call the mock, and then make assertions about what you expect to happen. If you'd like to test this code (python3, using the links above, form_url and post_url) with the username miguel and the password password. Tying these tests to real requests means. The current free version is PIL 1. We must compare the requests. 17-3: Testing python_repos. json()['status'] is a mock too! We end up. Python Example: Python Server Code (server. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. It is a 3-digit integer where first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response and the last two digits do not have any categorization role. Loading Unsubscribe from Testing World? Cancel Unsubscribe. In this tutorial, you learnt how to Mock HTTP Request In Express Unit Testing. $ python test/test_testadapter. 000s OK Run tests via unittest. If you were hesitant about using exceptions in the style described in this post, don't be. 5 • Used by large companies in the world: Her Majesty's Government, Amazon, Google, Twilio, Runscope, Mozilla, Heroku, PayPal, etc… • Actively maintained • Easy to use. It's a lot of custom coding for a problem that was. Websites like Reddit, Twitter, and Facebook all offer certain data through their APIs. In Python unit testing with Mock - Part Two, we'll cover how to review your code to decide what parts of your code require mocks, how to write them with real code samples, as well. First let's cover streaming tweets from Twitter. Servers are generated from your OpenAPI v2/v3 (formerly known as Swagger) documents. Testing The Solution. Success - This class of status codes indicates that the server successfully accepted the client request. We will have a closer look at the HTTP/HTTPs calls using the python requests library and on the interaction with HTTP based interfaces. First, we define the expected data that we will use in our test and create a mock response object. Instead of calling the actual implementation, you would call the mock, and then make assertions about what you expect to happen. In this post, I'll discuss how you can mock HTTP requests made using urllib or requests package. This ends up being a huge benefit when you want to fiddle with scope to save time on testing. return_value. What Is Requests Module? Requests is a Python module that you can use to send all kinds of HTTP requests. In my case, I've got a function that initializes a class, and that class needs to be patched in its entirety. Get an ad-free experience with special benefits, and directly support Reddit. The body section if present is the object returned by the request. Python Unittest 1. See the below python socket server example code, the comments will help you to understand the code. The #1 Python solution used by innovative teams. CookieJar of cookies that will be merged into the response. The client should be prepared to receive one or more 1xx responses before receiving a regular response. status_codes. Python is one of the most popular programming languages of our era; the Python Requests library is one of the world's best clients, with the highest number of downloads. This tutorial will discuss in detail what mocking is and how to use it in Python applications. This section covers the basics of how to install Python packages. The advantage is that a lot of the detail of setting up a HTTP request with 'urllib3', which this library uses, is hidden away - the request is simple to create and it returns a response object that allows easy access to the various attributes of interest (status code, headers etc). This covers a couple of points if you are using Flask-Testing with SQLAlchemy. Using the Python mock library to fake regular functions during tests Posted on April 10, 2014 While writing unit tests in Python, there will often be times where you'll need to fake the result of a function as testing against the actual function may be impossible. Using random data dynamic variables. Let's write our test module and investigate it afterwards. Python httplib2 module provides methods for accessing Web resources via HTTP GET and POST requests, authentication, caching, redirects, and compression. Hence forth we will move along with Python Requests library to learn and develop RESTful API. Let's do a more real example that we can refactor through the rest of this tutorial. Mock REST service. What is Requests The Requests module is a an elegant and simple HTTP library for Python. Each responder also receives a Response object that can be used for setting the status code, unittest. content_type. Instead I simply return a particular HTTP status code along with a bit of sample JSON in the body. This means you access the “mock instance” by looking at the return value of the mocked class. Each Status-Code is described below, including a description of which method(s) it can follow and any metainformation required in the response. The Status-Code element in a server response, is a 3-digit integer where the first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response and the last two digits do not have any categorization role. (Installation)Requests III is an HTTP library for Python, built for Humans and Machines, alike. Thats why I want to check the status code first and if it is not 200 I want to go back and repeat the last request until the status code is 200. C# / C Sharp Forums on Bytes. What is Requests The Requests module is a an elegant and simple HTTP library for Python. Full code example at HugoDF/python-graphql-client-example. In the end, I think the modified code is better anyway. status_code) Output: >>>200. Python is a popular general purpose dynamic scripting language. The best solution looks like HTTPretty. What can I do with Requests? Requests allow you to send HTTP/1. The get_users() function will return the response, which is the mock, and the test will pass because the mock response status code is 200. To run python 3. I also added the ability to query status, and the ability to set the target temperature. VCRpy and Betamax are two libraries that avoid using mocks. Both modules come with a different set of functionalities and many times they need to be used. io is the service I use to show developers and SEO stakeholders what HTTP status codes their web pages are returning. foo tearDownClass bar setUp bar tearDown. We're the creators of Elasticsearch, Kibana, Beats, and Logstash -- the Elastic Stack. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. com is an easy to reference database of HTTP Status Codes with their definitions and helpful code references all in one place. status_code) Output: >>>200. So, in the below example, the @patch for bar. About Site Status @sfnet_ops. [pytest] mock_use_standalone_module = true This will force the plugin to import mock instead of the unittest. Instead I simply return a particular HTTP status code along with a bit of sample JSON in the body. We're the creators of Elasticsearch, Kibana, Beats, and Logstash -- the Elastic Stack. Mock out responses from the requests package. To propose a new code example for the AWS documentation team to consider producing, create a new request. HTTP_100_CONTINUE HTTP_101_SWITCHING_PROTOCOLS Successful - 2xx. Here are the examples of the python api requests. Python Imaging Library (PIL) The Python Imaging Library (PIL) adds image processing capabilities to your Python interpreter. This is a super simple service for generating different HTTP codes. Python Tutorial: Python HTTP Web Services, We can identify two major classes of Web services, REST-compliant Web services, in which the primary purpose of the service is to manipulate XML representations of Web resources using a uniform set of stateless operations; and arbitrary Web services, in which the service may expose an arbitrary set of operations. It is a 3-digit integer where first digit of the Status-Code defines the class of response and the last two digits do not have any categorization role. POST, but more useful for working with Web APIs. Let's start with our worker thread. Write a program called test_python_repos. It appears that this exception is raised when: - the status line is empty - the 'strict' flag is on and the status line didn't start with 'HTTP/' - the 'status' part of the status line is not convertible to an int - the status code ('status' part of the status line, converted to an. I recently built a custom integration and so I. Our tools for Python development—or yours. POST # Only handles form data. What are the benefits of mocking. It is maintained by the same community that maintains Python. This guide is a comprehensive resource for contributing to Python – for both new and experienced contributors. Update a web page without reloading the page. To make it much easier to deal with status_codes, Requests has got a built-in status code lookup object which serves as an easy reference. "httpstatus. to pass the data to the python code. - getsentry/responses Join GitHub today. Kudos to those involved. Python Mock Library Brought to you by: Code Tickets tools Bugs. My main point here isn’t to convince you to test, I hope you are reading this because you already know you want to do it. Charset 101. A simple HTTP Request & Response Service. A successful http. In Python 3, a few imports and module names would have to change. You should checkout the docs for more information. Instead of listing each package manually, we can use find_packages() to automatically discover all packages and subpackages. py setUpModule foo setUpClass foo setUp foo tearDown. How to call a REST API using Python using json request/response- Crucible Development Amit Pandey Mar 06, 2013 I am a newbie to python and am trying to create a script to login to crucible and use the token to pass to other services. VCRpy and Betamax are two libraries that avoid using mocks. After receiving and interpreting a request message, a server responds with an HTTP response message. Python Request Status Codes - Learn Python Network Programming in simple and easy steps starting from basic to advanced concepts with examples. You can set up expectations about the calls that are made to the mock object, and examine the history of calls made. Hence forth we will move along with Python Requests library to learn and develop RESTful API. PythonCard is a GUI construction kit for building cross-platform desktop applications on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux, using the Python language. One feature that it does not have, however, is the ability to specify url parameters. The Python client library provides a function to generate this URL. The following are code examples for showing how to use requests. Bug 894881 - Review Request: python-power - Cross-platform system power status information Summary: Review Request: python-power - Cross-platform system power status information Keywords :. I'm getting started writing Google Cloud http Functions using Python and I would like to include unit tests. There are 5 values for the first digit: It means the server failed to fulfill an apparently valid. In this tutorial, you learnt how to Mock HTTP Request In Express Unit Testing. Python Unittest 1. mock library. After the server has acknowledged the request, it has until the time limit expires to produce a response. 000s OK Run tests via unittest. HttpResponseRedirect is a subclass of HttpResponse (source code) in the Django web framework that returns the HTTP 302 status code, indicating the URL resource was found but temporarily moved to a different URL. Book Description. Thanks for sharing such a wonderful article with us on Hands on tutorial to perform Data Exploration using Elastic Search and Kibana (using Python) We are also providing some good information about Big Data , so for more information viste our website Thank you. We could use httpretty again to fake requests at the network level, but there is a better solution in this scenario: the mock library we installed earlier. Learn how to integrate your applications seamlessly with web services using Python Requests. Running the code above works because the file is being closed when it leaves the with File('foo. ¶ Release v2. Status-Line = HTTP-Version SP Status-Code SP Reason-Phrase CRLF. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: