Python Argparse Examples

They are extracted from open source Python projects. Show Source. If you already have Python 3 code, you can instead use future to offer Python 2 compatibility with almost no extra work. In this article, we will learn about Python *args and **kwargs ,their uses and functions with examples. py --help (or python program. 31 11:26:59 字数 199 阅读 902 我想有一个可选参数,如果只存在没有指定值的标志,则默认为一个值,但如果用户指定一个值,则存储用户指定的值而不是默认值。. This works great most of the time, but what about the "Value: Yes" and "Single: True" values?Those are booleans. Python comes with several different libraries that allow you to write a command line interface for your scripts, but the standard way for creating a CLI in Python is currently the Python argparse library. Python has a package manager: pip (pip3) Use pip to install packages from the internet – Automatically determines dependencies needed – Downloads needed packages from the Python Package Index (pypi. Because argparse does not otherwise impose any restrictions on the order in which arguments and options may appear, and there is no simple way to modify what arguments/options may appear once parsing has begun (something involving custom actions that modify the parser instance might work), you should consider replacing -t itself:. argparse module. The argparse module makes it easy to write user-friendly command-line interfaces. py """ Script to convert python interpreter examples into python code Usage: python script_from_examples. For example, line-arguments using argparse in Python. ArgumentParser() parser. email: Examples¶ Here are a few examples of how to use the email package to read, write, and send simple email messages, as well as more complex MIME messages. ArgumentParser``. argv, but argparse makes it easier. Argparse4j is a command line argument parser library for Java based on Python's argparse module. How do I install and use argparse Python module under Debian Linux 6. Arguments as key and value pair for python program Python program gets input values and operation type as python arguments as key and value pair using argparse module. The first step to start using this module is to import it into Python. You could also redirect stdout to some kind of buffer or a text control type widget from a user interface toolkit like Tkinter or wxPython. The implementation of argparse supports features that would not have been easy to add to optparse, and that would have required backwards-incompatible API changes, so a new module was brought into the library instead. add_argument ('-f', dest = file, type = string) args = parser. 6 and earlier don't have argparse, we. It is very common to the getopt module but that is a little complicated and usually need more code for the same task. py” is the file containing our example code. That didn't go too well, but we did find the model to be pretty decent at. Python provides the following two options: The getopt module is a parser for command line options whose API is designed to be familiar to users of the C getopt() function. Understanding command line parameters. That's a full port, except some very rare options, recorded in issue tracker. GooeyParser. In this Python Operator tutorial, we will discuss what is an operator in Python Programming Language. argparse: Command Line Optional and Positional Argument Parser. That didn't go too well, but we did find the model to be pretty decent at. The biggest difference is that optparse is deprecated since Python 3. The argsparse module can be used to parse command line arguments. That's a full port, except some very rare options, recorded in issue tracker. Advanced Topics with Python. Building a simple program to calculate the volume of a cylinder. You are advised to take references of these examples and try them on your own. How do I install and use argparse Python module under Debian Linux 6. It was born from lack of existing library to read/write natively from Python the Office Open XML format. 不管工作或自己電腦,我超愛用 argparse 這個套件。理由無他,因為用了之後可以用 python 簡單地寫出看起來很專業的命令列指令。那今天這篇文章. Below are examples to get you started using the library. The following are 16 code examples for showing how to use h5py. I hope that these examples will give you a head start in this area. taking the input from command line using argument is called " Command line argument ". How to calculate an integer encoding and one hot encoding by hand in Python. In the basics series, we actually just used the sys library, which can. Docs » Example Programs #!/usr/bin/env python3 """Show a text-mode spectrogram using live microphone data. argv, getopt or argparse. Note that in the examples below “ATX-JDAVIS:python_abstract_credentials jdavis$” is a command line prompt and “abstracted_credentials. This python module makes easy to write user-friendly command-line interfaces. In contrast to the Python calls we used in the previous examples, keep in mind to use Python 3 with these examples. Optparse supports short style options like -x, long style options like --xhtml and positional arguments. com/feed-logo. py had near the bottom of its code. Python JSON Module Tutorial: In Python the json module provides an API similar to convert in-memory Python objects to a serialized representation known as JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and vice-a-versa. While Python 2. If you take a look at the argparse documentation, they suggest to use set_defaults on each of the parsers to associate a processing function depending on which parser is selected. For users who still need to support Python < 2. """ from influxdb import InfluxDBClient from influxdb import SeriesHelper # InfluxDB. The mission of the Python Software Foundation is to promote, protect, and advance the Python programming language, and to support and facilitate the growth of a diverse and international community of Python programmers. Python Programming Examples The best way to learn any programming language is by practicing examples on your own. A function that needs to return multiple values can just return a tuple of the values. argparse expects that an argument that starts with '-' is an option, and it also expects to be told about all possible options. #python #argparse #configparser - argparse-example-1. Using a boolean option is preferable to using an option that you pass in a “1” to to enable. py [-h] optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit. Learn more. Argparse module. web import wamp as vtk_wamp try: import argparse except ImportError: # since Python 2. I think you will agree that this can be a really useful solution for distributing small standalone programs to users that are not comfortable running python from the command line. 2) in favor of the argparse module. Tshepang Lekhonkhobe. ArgumentParser() parser. All kudos to the PHPExcel team as openpyxl was initially based on PHPExcel. import argparse parser = argparse. py” is the file containing our example code. py --help (or python program. py', 'abc', '123'] Notice that the first argument is always the name of the Python file. But a lot of people new to Python, don't understand what this should be. py this is mygame. The argparse module was added to Python 2. datasets import DatasetManager warnings. A command line parser takes a string and interprets it as a series of positional (required) arguments and options. I love using Python for creating command-line applications which require just a bit more logic than writing a bash-script. Command-line arguments in Python, Java and C. Extending and Embedding tutorial for C/C++ programmers. For Python training, our top recommendation is DataCamp. Multi-Level Argparse in Python. Please use: parser. parse_args print args. net Recommended Python Training - DataCamp. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. 2, it is also provided as a separate package, which tries to stay compatible with the module in the standard library, but also supports older Python versions. Build manual page from Python ArgumentParser object. Write your own from scratch 2. Sections are created with a section header and a colon followed by a block of indented text. The following description is from The argparse module is now part of the Python standard library! The argparse module provides an easy, declarative interface for creating command line tools, which knows how to: parse the arguments and flags from sys. Pygame Pygame provide Python bindings for SDL (the Simple Direct media Library) that is required to create an OpenGL context in which to run the examples. A typical example of Python's argparse combined with configparser. The course is taught using Python, so you will feel right at home. Creating a feature database from docking results¶. In this Python Operator tutorial, we will discuss what is an operator in Python Programming Language. Example 5 shows the parser initialization, and Listing 5 shows the basic call, followed by the help message. Official Argparse Tutorial - More examples and the official walk through on using argparse. parse_args() Run the code Run the code with the --help option (Running the script without any options results in nothing displayed to stdout) python program. The argparse module makes it easy to write user-friendly command-line interfaces. Projects using Sphinx¶. __repr__,Break and Continue Statements,. For Python training, our top recommendation is DataCamp. def main(): print "hello world!" print "Guru99" Here we got two pieces of print one is defined within a main function that is "Hello World" and the other is independent which is "Guru99". Python - Quick Start Web,How to use Reddit API in Python,Python Basic,Exception Handling in Python,Reading and Writing Files in Python,How to use SimpleHTTPServer,How to access various Web Services in Python,Python Secure FTP module,How to use FTP in Python,Argparse Tutorial,. Python is a really handy language for scripting, particularly when compared to a compiled language like C# or Java. The argparse module. Docstrings may extend over multiple lines. Python is often used as a language to parse command lines with ease. Minimal argparse example in Python. py """ Script to convert python interpreter examples into python code Usage: python script_from_examples. molecule import Molecule ##### class Runner (argparse. Use Python3 to Model and Visualize Harmonic Waveforms: We provide a simple Python script and examples to model and visualize square and triangle waves with applications to circuit design and test. datasets import DatasetManager warnings. ArgumentParser() parser. org issue tracker. Skeleton: A minimal example generating HTML with Python Jinja; Simple logging in Python; Logging in Python; Python argparse to process command line arguments; Using the Open Weather Map API with Python; Python: seek - move around in a file and tell the current location; Python: Capture standard output, standard error, and the exit code of a. Argparse The argparse module makes it easy to write user-friendly command-line interfaces. Python provides the following two options: The getopt module is a parser for command line options whose API is designed to be familiar to users of the C getopt() function. Because argparse does not otherwise impose any restrictions on the order in which arguments and options may appear, and there is no simple way to modify what arguments/options may appear once parsing has begun (something involving custom actions that modify the parser instance might work), you should consider replacing -t itself:. """ # import to process args import sys import os # import vtk modules. ''' ##### import os import argparse from ccdc. You write the grammar in a string or a file and then use it as an argument to dynamically generate the parser. For example, line-arguments using argparse in Python. 7 and Python 3 share many similar capabilities, they should not be thought of as entirely interchangeable. About a year ago I began a job where building command-line applications was a common occurrence. The GooeyParser offers more advanced widgets, like a file chooser. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. I want script to give me the details of the network passed though commnad line. In contrast to the Python calls we used in the previous examples, keep in mind to use Python 3 with these examples. It was born from lack of existing library to read/write natively from Python the Office Open XML format. x argparse or ask your own question. Obviously if you need a more robust solution then you'll need to evaluate other options but I would argue that there is a lot of power in this potential solution. org Mailing Lists: Welcome! Below is a listing of all the public Mailman 2 mailing lists on mail. Python Programming Language Examples - Example python programs like factorial series, singly linked list, double linked list, linear search etc. Python Setup and Usage how to use Python on different platforms. In this part, we're going to talk about the standard library called argparse. The easiest way to write your data in the JSON format to a file using Python is to use store your data in a dict object, which can contain other nested dicts, arrays, booleans, or other primitive types like integers and strings. There is no want of command-line arguments parsers in the Python world. That's a full port, except some very rare options, recorded in issue tracker. How do I install and use argparse Python module under Debian Linux 6. In the past, this type of language was called a scripting language, intimating its use was for trivial tasks. Distributing Python Modules publishing modules for installation by others. py file looks like:. $ pip install argparse_min_example $ argparse-min-example --help You should get output something like the following. Let's start with something simple! I have always found. They are extracted from open source Python projects. It was created by Guido van Rossum during 1985- 1990. py” is the file containing our example code. See my Python String Format Cookbook for a similar tutorial with regards to string and number formatting. For example, if I wanted to have a list of 3-d coordinates, the natural python representation would be a list of tuples, where each tuple is size 3 holding one (x, y, z) group. file But I am getting the folllowing error: NameError: name 'file_name' is not defined. 不管工作或自己電腦,我超愛用 argparse 這個套件。理由無他,因為用了之後可以用 python 簡單地寫出看起來很專業的命令列指令。那今天這篇文章. To understand what that means, unfortunately, is somewhat involved. Let's explore how command line parsers work and try to write one ourselves. You write the grammar in a string or a file and then use it as an argument to dynamically generate the parser. """ from __future__ import division, print_function import argparse try: import queue # Python 3. Python Overview Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods Python File Methods Python Keywords Module Reference Random Module Requests Module Python How To Remove List Duplicates Reverse a String Python Examples Python Examples Python Exercises Python. #!/usr/bin/env python """ synopsis: Example of the use of the Python multiprocessing module. The easiest way to write your data in the JSON format to a file using Python is to use store your data in a dict object, which can contain other nested dicts, arrays, booleans, or other primitive types like integers and strings. py abc 123, then the program would yield - Number of arguments: 3 Argument(s) passed: ['demo1. 7 as a replacement for optparse. In this article, we'll be taking a whirlwind tour of this helpful module. code:: shell pip install argparse-autogen Usage-----``argparse_autogen. The argparse module also automatically generates help and usage messages and issues errors when users give the program …. worked examples of argparse and python logging. If you've written any command line application at all, you've probably used a library like argparse to read in arguments to your program. 6 and earlier don't have argparse, we. ArgumentParser. configargparse shouldn't override argparse's convert_arg_line_to_args method so that all argparse unit tests can be run on configargparse. Using argparse with parameters defined in config file function / classes in a normal Python script. walk modules and use them as key elements of this first Python Forensic application. Python Keyword Arguments. Python is preinstalled on Microsoft-hosted build agents for Linux, macOS, or Windows. Stiffness¶ << return to Python examples. Tshepang Lekhonkhobe. Installing Python Modules installing from the Python Package Index & other sources. This gives you the additional keyword argument widget, to which you can supply the name of the component you want to display. Subscribe for more cool stuff! Argparse docs - https://docs. com Nullege - Search engine for Python source code Snipt. Javascript port of python's argparse module (original version 3. A journey from being a novice to a professional Python developer In Detail If you are looking for a complete course on Python programming, then go for this Learning Path. Set all the motors of the body to zero. The program defines what arguments it requires, and argparse will figure out how to parse those out of sys. I want script to give me the details of the network passed though commnad line. 7 and the Argparse module to parse command line parameters. argv to retrieve a small list of positional parameters from the command line. Unfortunatley for us, when it comes to python, most of the examples are for the old, deprecated library for parsing arguments ( optparse ). 2, it is also provided as a separate package, which tries to stay compatible with the module in the standard library, but also supports older Python versions. A sample Python 3 script is provided. The implementation of argparse supports features that would not have been easy to add to optparse, and that would have required backwards-incompatible API changes, so a new module was brought into the library instead. Unfortunately it introduced this bug regarding subparsers. This article will take you through the key differences to consider when choosing on whether to work in Python 2 or Python 3 for your development projects. Python has a number of command-line interface builder tools. taking the input from command line using argument is called " Command line argument ". datasets import DatasetManager warnings. we can also take inputs from command line directly without halting the execution of the program. Using the == (equal to) operator for comparing two strings. I don't know which attribute should be used to add "example" part, I check Print program usage example with argparse modulen, but it's unclear and without detailed example when I check epilog in the official doc. They are extracted from open source Python projects. It now requires Python 3. It is really useful to use the argparse module to help create the parameters that you can pass into your scripts. That's a full port, except some very rare options, recorded in issue tracker. How to use the scikit-learn and Keras libraries to automatically encode your sequence data in Python. The documentation for the argparse python module, while excellent I'm sure, is too much for my tiny beginner brain to grasp right now. If you already have Python 3 code, you can instead use future to offer Python 2 compatibility with almost no extra work. Say you have a directory with videos in it and want to turn those videos into images using the OpenCV library. Official Argparse Tutorial - More examples and the official walk through on using argparse. They are also used a lot for learning how to implement Test Driven Development (TDD) when writing code. import vtk from vtk. As you can see, python calculates the width of 'བོད་སྐད་ལ་' incorrectly, because of the vowel markers. 289 Notice that here we don’t see the ‘test’ line that mymath. I couldn’t find a good intro guide for argparse when I needed one, so I wrote this article. Welcome to part 3 of the intermediate Python programming tutorial series. Python argparse. We can access those arguments inside the program with help of python modules(sys, argparse, etc. py, which loads the whole file into memory before starting playback, this example program only holds a given number of audio blocks in memory and is therefore able to play files that are larger than the available RAM. Argparse version 1. ArgumentParser() parser. This issue is about options taking arguments beginning with dash (such as a2x --asciidoc-opts --safe, where --safe is the argument to --asciidoc-opts), not positional arguments beginning with dash. rpm for CentOS 7 from EPEL repository. In both of these examples, we are redirecting stdout to a file. Python JSON Module Tutorial: In Python the json module provides an API similar to convert in-memory Python objects to a serialized representation known as JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and vice-a-versa. This python module makes easy to write user-friendly command-line interfaces. 10 (Installation)python-docx is a Python library for creating and updating Microsoft Word (. Since the import of parameters for complex programs is a hassle and bug-prone, the powerful Python module Argparse helps with this task. Argparse is a parser for command-line options, arguments, and sub-commands. Currently argparse supports only command line -> default, I'd like to suggest an optional "env" keyword to add_argument that will also resolve from environment. py test: square(42) == 1764 But we can also use mymath. Simple example:. The GooeyParser offers more advanced widgets, like a file chooser. 3) and argparse (from Python 2. The argparse module makes it easy to write user-friendly command-line interfaces. argv) is the number of command-line arguments. But one thing that I've noticed that was a problem that you can't easily have a variable with. Think about anything that may be confusing to you down the road and make sure to capture those in either comments, docstrings, or the readme. Python supports threads and has several object to deal with this (Thread-safe queue object, semaphores, critical sections) Clearely separating the logic of your program from the GUI will greately ease the transition to multi-threaded programming. I have the following stripped down code, but I'd like to use subparsers and parents to make the help more. py” is the file containing our example code. Note There are two other modules that fulfill the same task, namely getopt (an equivalent for getopt() from the C language) and the deprecated optparse. i wrote a python cli tool that uses argparse to accept. Argparse The argparse module makes it easy to write user-friendly command-line interfaces. py [-h] optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit. A truly pythonic cheat sheet about Python programming language. py [-h] optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit. The argparse module makes it easy to write user-friendly command-line interfaces and I recommend this module for all users. However, the code is not working. ArgumentParser() parser. Most Python codes are written as scripts and command-line interfaces (CLI). In this case, I’ve named it echo so that it’s in line with its function. Our Python script file ( simple_example. This article is written for argsparse with Python 3. command line argument in Python using argparse ArgParse: In Python we can do any programming either console program or GUI programming. com Nullege - Search engine for Python source code Snipt. It's called argparse, which is a replacement for optparse. Above, the arguments at which options are found are removed so that sys. Minimal example with one positional parameter (param):. Because argparse does not otherwise impose any restrictions on the order in which arguments and options may appear, and there is no simple way to modify what arguments/options may appear once parsing has begun (something involving custom actions that modify the parser instance might work), you should consider replacing -t itself:. py": #!/usr/bin/env python import argparse if. The following are code examples for showing how to use argparse. I would like to use argparse module for Python 2. If you are about to ask a "how do I do this in python" question, please try r/learnpython, the Python discord, or the #python IRC channel on FreeNode. The program defines what arguments it requires, and argparse will figure out how to parse those out of sys. First is the boolean setting, useful for options that are normally false, but you want to occasionally turn on. You are advised to take references of these examples and try them on your own. Understanding command line parameters. Extending and Embedding tutorial for C/C++ programmers. Here's a way of handling subparsers. A workaround for passing a list of comma separated items is to use your own type, which for argparse means that the value of "type" must be callable as shown in the example. Python FreeCADGui. If you've written any command line application at all, you've probably used a library like argparse to read in arguments to your program. Using argparse with parameters defined in config file function / classes in a normal Python script. I have the following stripped down code, but I'd like to use subparsers and parents to make the help more. ArgumentParser(). To sum up, enhancing a Python script to make it more sustainable can be done in four steps: add documentation at the top, use the argparse module to document the different parameters, use the logging module to log details about progress, and; add some unit tests. argparse is the “recommended command-line parsing module in the Python standard library. All Links and Slides will be in the description. import argparse import logging import os import re import warnings from carto. A namespace containing all the built-in names is created when we start the Python interpreter and exists as long we don't exit. # Import Argparse import argparse. argparse expects that an argument that starts with '-' is an option, and it also expects to be told about all possible options. Python is great, too! Example. Relation to argparse¶ Argh is fully compatible with argparse. The argparse module. In both of these examples, we are redirecting stdout to a file. 14-3-gafe8fcc Matthias Geier 2019-09-25 Most of these examples use the argparse17 module to handle command line arguments. Python argparse is the recommended command-line argument parsing module in Python. python argparse list (5) For example, it doesn't make sure that there are the same number of keys and values. parser: The argparse. You can find the complete example on GitHub and use it as a template!. How to use the scikit-learn and Keras libraries to automatically encode your sequence data in Python. 7 as a replacement for optparse. GooeyParser. 7) for sending data to Graphite. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Skip to content. Ports examples from the argparse Python module ArgumentParser crates a parser object that acts as a wrapper to Python’s argparse module Usage ArgumentParser. The following example comes from the documentation and shows how to parse a date. This works great most of the time, but what about the "Value: Yes" and "Single: True" values?Those are booleans. Subscribe for more cool stuff! Slides & files - https://www. A Class is like an object constructor, or a "blueprint" for creating objects. parser: The argparse. This module demonstrates documentation as specified by the `Google Python Style Guide`_. Since the import of parameters for complex programs is a hassle and bug-prone, the powerful Python module Argparse helps with this task. argparse — Parser for command-line options, arguments and sub-commands¶ New in version 2. You could use argparse so the user can enter input and output directories. For a more gentle introduction to Python command-line parsing, have a look at the argparse tutorial. ” It’s what you use to get command line arguments into your program. These arguments are passed into the program. However, the script raises exception when parameters needed are not provided in equal number or type or order. Release v0. This means that it is not converted to computer-readable code before the program is run but at runtime. For users who still need to support Python < 2. I don’t think they are bad tools, they. Course Features. Poses¶ << return to Python examples. com Nullege - Search engine for Python source code Snipt. About a year ago I began a job where building command-line applications was a common occurrence. Skip to content. argv to retrieve a small list of positional parameters from the command line. ActiveState Code - Popular Python recipes Snipplr. " It is because we. getopt module. For more details, please see the online documentation of the module. Consider a simple command-line script which accepts a colour as it's only argument, and immediately prints the Python representation of that object. Argparse Tutorial¶ author. In this tutorial, we will show you how to loop a dictionary in Python. x argparse or ask your own question. riptutorial. In the basics series, we actually just used the sys library, which can. Python is an extremely readable and versatile programming language. py file looks like:. el provides python-mode, which enables basic indentation and syntax highlighting support. I don't need to do math on the command line or meddle with formatting lines on the screen or change option characters. ArgumentParser(description='Optional app description') 2) Add Arguments. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: