# Matlab Image Stack

so I created this image in matlab and saved it as an eps-image. The mask is shown in green and the image stack in magenta. Knowing this information is also extremely important when debugging Java components that are used in Matlab, especially when using the Java-to-Matlab Interface. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. ) -a prefix. In the right image, the most distant object is in focus. However, how do I add Poisson noise in order to obtain the same SNR? I have tested imnoise with MATLAB, but with a certain constant chosen, the SNR changes for image for. I have two splited images from diference matlab files. After this, I must create a 1D image intensity array by taking the "double mean of each layer of the image stack". Is there a way to do that same thing in matlab? I want to be able to take a mask and then take all the highlighted areas of interest and turn them into x and y data that the x data is time and Y would be a change in fluorescence data points. with the rois, what i need to do is construct a volume. For example. an image stack. In image J there is a thing called plot Z stack image profile. I first created an imageDatastore holding 45 of our images used for training. Conclusion Working on images in MATLAB is very convenient, especially when compared to more general-purpose languages. Learn more about 3d stacked plot of image for every frequency I tried to plot the image in a 3d plot with x&Y axis for pixel info. I have two splited images from diference matlab files. Steve Eddins is a software development manager in the MATLAB and image processing areas at MathWorks. I have sequences of tiff images, which I want to combine into tiff stacks. I would be able to read single images in MATLAB and them create a stack of them but the images would need to be realigned (object position is slightly different from image to. My research topic is Adaptive Modified Median Filter (AMMF) in Digital Image Processing. I thought the following would do it. Is there a way to do that same thing in matlab? I want to be able to take a mask and then take all the highlighted areas of interest and turn them into x and y data that the x data is time and Y would be a change in fluorescence data points. Then, read the images (I) one by one an put them in the volume (v(:,:,i)=I). This is why your image looks upside down. Toggle Main Navigation. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities How to avoid large margins around Matlab plot in PDF The image file is generated by printing a Matlab plot. % Another way to split the image up into blocks is to use indexing. The entire image stack is treated as a matlab tensor. Now we need to get the skeleton of the pattern obtained. Now the problem is how do i detect the centre of the rough circle i have obtained. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Open TIF image stack. An RGB image is sometimes referred to as a true colour image as the precision with which a real-life image can be replicated has led to the nickname “true colour image. Learn more about 3d stacked plot of image for every frequency I tried to plot the image in a 3d plot with x&Y axis for pixel info. I first created an imageDatastore holding 45 of our images used for training. MATLAB stores most images as two-dimensional matrices, in which each element of the matrix corresponds to a single discrete pixel in the displayed image. It would be appropriate to reference the page number of were the function is decsribed in your text. Download the File:SAND. It can be found on github. Setup a private space for you and your coworkers to ask questions and share information. If different sized images are used, you will be presented with options to make the size uniform. Learn more about tif, image stack Image Processing Toolbox I remeber using bfOpen3DVolume function from Bio-format matlab tools to open TIFF. Open MATLAB with Image Processing Toolbox 3. ( for undergraduate students, not professionals) the list is at. pdf without the problem of exporting the image as a whole page:. flipud is what you need. Many matlab functions require a 2-D matrix, and squeeze often comes in handy when pulling slices out of a stack of images. I am trying to stabilize stage + focus drift of the 4D(3D+time) microscopic images. hey, I tried your code using Matlab 2012b. There are five basic types of images supported by Matlab: Indexed images Intensity images Binary images RGB images 8-bit images To learn the specifics of each of these, see the Image Processing Toolbox manual. I want to use matlab plots in my ConTeXt document, but preprocess them in Inkscape. I want to save the image created by matplotlib in python in. I want to test the code with a given signal to noise ratios (SNR). I'd like to do a batch converison of 1400. For the 3D matrix that I have the regionprops command allows for the Area, Centroid and BoundingBox of the connected points in my dataset to be found. With the squeeze, it's a 2-D matrix of size NxM. I am trying to stabilize stage + focus drift of the 4D(3D+time) microscopic images. 4,000+ tags are a lot. ) -a prefix. I have lot of 2D images and would like to stack them in a 3D volumetric cube and then plot it. please help me out by providing me a matlab code. Average Intensity projection outputs an image wherein each pixel stores average intensity over all images in stack at corresponding pixel location. but it takes pretty much the same time as with imread — around 45 seconds for 20000 frames of a 170000 frames file with 128×80 pixels. I need help with this code with the objective of compressing image using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). I need to scale the values of two images (imgA and imgB). It is often con v enien t to use Ma tlab ev en for programs whic h this language not the ideal c hoice in terms of data structures and constructs. Start with the uigetfile command which opens a pop-up window with all the files of the type '*. When we write that image is of 620 X 480 size, it means that image has 620 pixel in horizontal direction and 480 pixel in vertical direction. BUT, I want the option to say the array of images as a single file i. I have written a code which is making a 3D array of it but I am not getting a correct plot of all the stack as a 3D cube. After this, I must create a 1D image intensity array by taking the "double mean of each layer of the image stack". How to perform image registration in Matlab like a Stackreg(imageJ) ? Hi. Steganography is the method of hiding secret data inside any form of digital media. I have some images. only using the 50x200 images, ignoring the other images), but I have no idea how to proceed if I want to combine the images (which I hope will give the learning process more information, thus result in better classification performance). Select the image that you want to process, in this case 'SAND. Switch to the Red channel in a color stack if you want to see the overlap between the Red and the Mask). Five different projection types are supported. Here is the image that I obtained:. I'm sorry, I don't have MATLAB, but I'll do my best to give you MATLAB-like pseudo-code to work with. Firstly we applied canny edge detection to the image, then detected lines using houghlines, then we got start and end points of the lines. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A Optimal transport warping implementation in Matlab they indicate using matlab's poicalc for solving the. Fyi I have around 15-20 images per z stack so I can't. I am trying to stabilize stage + focus drift of the 4D(3D+time) microscopic images. % In this demo, I demonstrate that with a color image. I am installing Matlab, and now I need to select the components that are required for electrical engineering projects, circuits, ect. (it is my opinion) It is simple to learn, hardware independent, more flexible than any compiled language, possibly more efficient than script languages (due to its inherent dlls optimized for signal processing at the machine level), it has good academic and engineering support. I am writing a MATLAB code where I want to add Poisson noise to images to see how well my algorithm performs. I loop through each image of each stack, concatenating them together. Unfortunately, for me it did not work — i copied the tifflib to my folder and it is running. I thought the following would do it. Octave on Stack Overflow - and Stack Overflow has an extensive back catalogue of many answered questions. flipud is what you need. Could anyone tell me how to plot the image of the following function in a two-dimensional plane in Matlab (R2018b) by possibly a Matlab code or command? I mean I want to see a curve in $\mathbb R^2. Unix & Linux Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of Linux, FreeBSD and other Un*x-like operating systems. I'm new to Image processing and started using MATLAB for Astrophotography processing. I have written a Matlab script to reduce the number of intensity levels of each pixel of a grayscale image from 256 to some power of 2. Toggle Main Navigation. Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 13 Bit Planes • Greyscale images can be transformed into a sequence of binary images by breaking them up into their bit-planes. How to save images into a tiff stack. I will now roughly outline the steps in my matlab code for this. I have written a code which is making a 3D array of it but I am not getting a correct plot of all the stack as a 3D cube. However, how do I add Poisson noise in order to obtain the same SNR? I have tested imnoise with MATLAB, but with a certain constant chosen, the SNR changes for image for. Here is my code thus far (I import just a few images):. Each frame of the file must have the same dimensions. Matlab's built-in dbstack function only reports the stack-trace of Matlab code, and any prior Java code in the stack trace is not reported. Let the focal. An RGB image is sometimes referred to as a true colour image as the precision with which a real-life image can be replicated has led to the nickname “true colour image. We had survey participation at almost the rate we would expect from our traffic, although such a low percentage points to problems with inclusion in the tech industry in general and Stack Overflow in particular. In Version - 1, I take inverse transform on entire kspace data and plot image data corresponding to slice 100. Learn more about tif, image stack Image Processing Toolbox I remeber using bfOpen3DVolume function from Bio-format matlab tools to open TIFF. For the 3D matrix that I have the regionprops command allows for the Area, Centroid and BoundingBox of the connected points in my dataset to be found. How to save images into a tiff stack. 4,000+ tags are a lot. Is there a way to do that same thing in matlab? I want to be able to take a mask and then take all the highlighted areas of interest and turn them into x and y data that the x data is time and Y would be a change in fluorescence data points. 4): The surface plot can be converted to an ImageJ image, better interpolation for lut-colors, faster filled mode 2007/01/10 (V2. In image J there is a thing called plot Z stack image profile. The imread command will read in the image. Extract bit planes from an Image in Matlab Image is basically combination of individual pixel (dots) information. The file names are numbered, so for stack one it is "name"001001 until "name"001120 and then 002001 until 002120 for stack two and so forth. Don't use both the [matlab] and [octave] tags, unless the question is explicitly about the similarities or differences between the two. Both images are the same size. an image stack. I am trying to stabilize stage + focus drift of the 4D(3D+time) microscopic images. There will be 60 patches per image, with the patch size 50x50. Octave on Stack Overflow - and Stack Overflow has an extensive back catalogue of many answered questions. Open MATLAB with Image Processing Toolbox 3. For example, if I just try to make one vertex of the initial. I learned that by stacking the 10 images together leads to a noise reduced picture with high PSNR and tried the below coding to make it work. Download the File:SAND. I have to work with the image acquisition toolbox in Matlab and I find it quite disturbing to always change to windows. image processing matlab code pdf free download. In Version - 2, I take kspace data corresponding to slice 100 and do inverse transform on this kspace and plot the image data. However, the clipped raster images come with black borders. Simple example would be: I have two circles and i pretend to make a 3D cylinder. If not, it uses a modified version of tiffread [1, 2] to read. Switch to the Red channel in a color stack if you want to see the overlap between the Red and the Mask). Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. So with my weak knowledge of Matlab, I applied the following operations: I get 4 points from the corners of the original image and the corresponding points in the output image. The imread command will read in the image. MATLAB on Twitter - Official MATLAB twitter account. I thought both versions will reconstruct the same way. How to perform image registration in Matlab like a Stackreg(imageJ) ? Hi. I'm trying to process 10 corrupted images (Same Image but mixed with different noise) of Planet Saturn using MATLAB. BUT, I want the option to say the array of images as a single file i. However in Python you have different options, furthermore, there are a lot of libraries available for Python, such as NumPy and SciPy which allow you to do statistical and matrix operations like in Matlab and R, and Python is easy to learn. MATLAB is the best language for learning image processing. I dont need this format, just some way to collect a set of tiff images (which are doubles) and be able to save as a single file in any format. Stack Exchange is. Toggle Main Navigation. It would be appropriate to reference the page number of were the function is decsribed in your text. How to save images into a tiff stack. But while opening in MATLAB, it shows the Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. My usual practice is to export MATLAB figures as. In many cases, you may wish to insert a background image to the existing GUI. The procedure will be: 1. As I understand it, the splitEachLabel function will split the data into a train set and a test set. Image Processing in Matlab is an easy task if you have Image Processing Toolbox installed in MATLAB: Image Processing Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of reference-standard algorithms and workflow apps for image processing, analysis, visualiza. How to perform image registration in Matlab like a Stackreg(imageJ) ? Hi. An image is stored as a matrix using standard Matlab matrix conventions. – eykanal Dec 13 '11 at 19:29. The main idea behind steganography is to hide the existence of a data in any medium like audio, video, image etc. Just in case; use plot2svg to create a SVG from matlab (actually I've patched the original to gzip the svg. MATLAB on Twitter - Official MATLAB twitter account. Switch to the Red channel in a color stack if you want to see the overlap between the Red and the Mask). Five different projection types are supported. Unix & Linux Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of Linux, FreeBSD and other Un*x-like operating systems. BUT, I want the option to say the array of images as a single file i. Use the implay function to open the Video Viewer app, which plays MATLAB ® movies, videos, or image sequences (also called image stacks). This is why your image looks upside down. I have some images. Once you have captured a focal stack of N images, you will need to use MATLAB to compensate for this small change in magnification. In Version - 1, I take inverse transform on entire kspace data and plot image data corresponding to slice 100. 1 day ago · So I'm trying to transform an image coordinate which is the ordinary square x,y coordinate to a circular coordinate as shown below. If the images are colored ythen use a 4d volume (h,w,3,noi) instead of a 3d. imerode supports the generation of C code (requires MATLAB ® Coder™). I am working on a complicated robotics project which involves MATLAB image processing algorithm and LEGO MINDSTORMS interface as well as an Arduino. flipud is what you need. Skype & friends work perfectly with my camera (using uvcvideo/video4linux2) but Matlab doesn't. for each box, using image search image to get a similar image and download to matlab 3. I was trying to implement the IBVS algorithm (the one explained in the Introduction here) in MATLAB myself, but I am facing the following problem : The algorithm seems to work only for the cases that the camera does not have to change its orientation in respect to the world frame. With hyperstacks, the projection is performed on the active time frame, or for all time points if All Time Frames is checked. Image Processing in Matlab is an easy task if you have Image Processing Toolbox installed in MATLAB: Image Processing Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of reference-standard algorithms and workflow apps for image processing, analysis, visualiza. Each frame of the file must have the same dimensions. As I understand it, the splitEachLabel function will split the data into a train set and a test set. 7 million programmers, just like you, helping each other. Phil in Computer Science. Steve on Image Processing and MATLAB. Image stacking is a popular method of image processing amongst astrophotographers, although the exact same technique can be applied to any situation where identical images can be captured over a period of time, in other words in situations where the scene isn't changing due to motion or varying light and shadow. Do I need to rectify the image before calculating dis. I am working on a complicated robotics project which involves MATLAB image processing algorithm and LEGO MINDSTORMS interface as well as an Arduino. I have some images. In image J there is a thing called plot Z stack image profile. Learn more about Teams. 1] in the same folder. How to perform image registration in Matlab like a Stackreg(imageJ) ? Hi. The question is how in Matlab? The Possible Solutions. Both images are the same size. A more suitable option would be saving as GIF, where the only limitation is that any RGB color stacks must be converted to 8 bit color. It can be found on github. Untilt Stack (removes tilt from a stack of images) Stack Reducer (makes stacks smaller) Demontager (opposite of Image>Stacks>Make Montage) Depth From Focus (improves focal depth) 3D Convex Hull (3D shape descriptors, solidity and convexity) LC_Pro (automated ROI analysis of image sequences). I must now create an image stack, "a 3D matrix of grayscale images". Is there a way to do that same thing in matlab? I want to be able to take a mask and then take all the highlighted areas of interest and turn them into x and y data that the x data is time and Y would be a change in fluorescence data points. I have an imbalanced data set (~1800 images minority class, ~5000 images majority class). Send comments to wsr nih. The question is how in Matlab? The Possible Solutions. The preferred projection method is stored in the preferences file. h5) and no idea where to start. Learn more about tif, image stack Image Processing Toolbox. Computational Science Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists using computers to solve scientific problems. Learn more about stiff stack Image Processing Toolbox. Unix & Linux Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of Linux, FreeBSD and other Un*x-like operating systems. image processing matlab code pdf free download. For example. Animated GIF… Choosing this option from the "Save as" menu saves a stack as an animated GIF. Since polyfit is a basic Matlab function, you could reference the Matlab Function Reference book (pdf) for the version of Matlab you are using. The tool menu contains the tools used to process the image stack. For example, if I just try to make one vertex of the initial. MATLAB on Twitter - Official MATLAB twitter account. here is one tutorial- matlab to vhdl conversion. Since images are matrices of n um b ers, man y vision algorithms are naturally implemen ted in Ma tlab. However, how do I add Poisson noise in order to obtain the same SNR? I have tested imnoise with MATLAB, but with a certain constant chosen, the SNR changes for image for. Prerequisite: Image Steganography Introduction, Implementation using Python. I have some images. Octave on Stack Overflow - and Stack Overflow has an extensive back catalogue of many answered questions. I have 10 images each of $92*92$ dimension. Now I want to make the stack for these images by using data image as (1. save/write and load/read stack image files in Matlab Matlab Code: analyze collagen structure in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (Chromophore vs Oncocytoma) 2012 in review. Matlab and Images Ma tlab is a simple and useful high-lev el language for matrix manipulation. I'm new to both linear algebra and MATLAB. If different sized images are used, you will be presented with options to make the size uniform. pdf without the problem of exporting the image as a whole page:. Reading the image data is optimised to the extent possible; the header information is only read once. I have written a code which is making a 3D array of it but I am not getting a correct plot of all the stack as a 3D cube. Thank you very much :). matlab-mastrostack. I am currently using the commands bwconncomp and regionprops in order to investigate connected regions within a stack of binary images. I'm looking to implement my own Matlab function that can be used to compute image filtering with a 3x3 kernel. This class attempts to use the Matlab tifflib interface, if available. I have an imbalanced data set (~1800 images minority class, ~5000 images majority class). the 3 images are just the original but grayscaled" Uh, no. MATLAB stores most images as two-dimensional matrices, in which each element of the matrix corresponds to a single discrete pixel in the displayed image. It reflects the image vertically. Using Video Viewer you can select the movie or image sequence that you want to play, jump to a specific frame in the sequence, change the frame rate of the display, or perform other viewing activities. I am new to matlab. Orthoviewer takes a grayscale image stack and displays its orthogonal views. What is an "image stack" in this context? Is it a series of TIFF files, or is it a single TIFF file that stores several images? If it is a single TIFF file, then you use the facilities for reading "subimages". Disclaimer. Select the image that you want to process, in this case 'SAND. In Matlab they have a function called 'cart2pol' where: cart2pol(x,y). Just in case; use plot2svg to create a SVG from matlab (actually I've patched the original to gzip the svg. In image J there is a thing called plot Z stack image profile. I would then later need to undo this and be able to eventually read the individual images. Projects an image stack along the axis perpendicular to image plane (the so-called "z" axis). I am writing a MATLAB code where I want to add Poisson noise to images to see how well my algorithm performs. I have 10 gray scale images (same size) with the data image between [0. 7 million programmers, just like you, helping each other. Steve on Image Processing and MATLAB. g sigma_threshold = 10, I get a blurry picture, if I set it to 100 it's even more blurry etc. In image J there is a thing called plot Z stack image profile. In Matlab, I want to plot several 2D image (all data in a 2 dimension matrix in I(x,y) format). fig for saving. I have sequences of tiff images, which I want to combine into tiff stacks. I want to use matlab plots in my ConTeXt document, but preprocess them in Inkscape. org website, here is the link. I must now create an image stack, "a 3D matrix of grayscale images". Plot vector field in matlab. When we write that image is of 620 X 480 size, it means that image has 620 pixel in horizontal direction and 480 pixel in vertical direction. ImageJ is highly extensible, with thousands of plugins and scripts for performing a wide variety of tasks, and a large user community. What is an "image stack" in this context? Is it a series of TIFF files, or is it a single TIFF file that stores several images? If it is a single TIFF file, then you use the facilities for reading "subimages". The API will be fa. An image is stored as a matrix using standard Matlab matrix conventions. Here is the original image : I want to apply the homography to this image (I have already extracted the homography matrix) to get a frontal view of the cover. After this, I must create a 1D image intensity array by taking the "double mean of each layer of the image stack". Is it hard to write a script to open a stack of images with unsupported format in MATLAB? I have a stack of images (file. Learn more about image stack, image import, digital image processing MATLAB. Digital image procesing Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India Hi Im Manoj. Note that if you choose the generic MATLAB Host Computer target platform, imerode generates code that uses a precompiled, platform-specific shared library. "Images to Stack" requires images to be the same size. stl format files that'll be meshed images. Prerequisite: Image Steganography Introduction, Implementation using Python. I managed to remove them in QGIS (. In this article Ritesh Kumar discusses how to develop a small demo to demonstrate how to have MATLAB and the MEAN stack working together. Image Processing in Matlab is an easy task if you have Image Processing Toolbox installed in MATLAB: Image Processing Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of reference-standard algorithms and workflow apps for image processing, analysis, visualiza. Learn more about tif, image stack Image Processing Toolbox I remeber using bfOpen3DVolume function from Bio-format matlab tools to open TIFF. Open TIF image stack. Stack Exchange is. so I created this image in matlab and saved it as an eps-image. I have 10 gray scale images (same size) with the data image between [0. It is often con v enien t to use Ma tlab ev en for programs whic h this language not the ideal c hoice in terms of data structures and constructs. I am new to matlab. Both images are the same size. Phil in Computer Science. an image stack. matlab to vhdl code conversion requires that you create a matlab function code and a test file script that test the matlab function, or you can create a simulink model and convert that model to vhdl or verilog. How to perform image registration in Matlab like a Stackreg(imageJ) ? Hi. % Read source image file. I have two images and I am trying to calculate the disparity between them using sum of squared distances and reconstruct disparity in 3D space. I've imported a set of images in MATLAB, and I've converted them to grayscale. MATLAB/Octave Python Description; doc help -i % browse with Info: help() Plot image data # imshow() and contour() as above: Image with contours: quiver() quiver(). In Matlab they have a function called 'cart2pol' where: cart2pol(x,y). Yes stk is from Metamorph. The system works dependently in a sequence acco. How to save images into a tiff stack. I want to save the image created by matplotlib in python in. Stack Exchange is. I need help with this code with the objective of compressing image using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Steve on Image Processing and MATLAB. Select the image that you want to process, in this case 'SAND. With hyperstacks, the projection is performed on the active time frame, or for all time points if All Time Frames is checked. Disclaimer nih. Using Video Viewer you can select the movie or image sequence that you want to play, jump to a specific frame in the sequence, change the frame rate of the display, or perform other viewing activities. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. In truecolor images, the first plane in the third. gif images are attached. I have some images. • We consider the grey value of each pixel of an 8-bit image as an 8-bit binary word. When I took a course in grad school on statistical image processing, I saw a very interesting plot where data is shown as a surf plot and underneath, on the ground or x-y plane, an image is shown. Both images are the same size. Start with the uigetfile command which opens a pop-up window with all the files of the type '*. It has to be like this: function [ output_args ] = fFilter( img, mask ) where img is a. BUT, I want the option to say the array of images as a single file i. h5) and no idea where to start. In this article Ritesh Kumar discusses how to develop a small demo to demonstrate how to have MATLAB and the MEAN stack working together. % In this demo, I demonstrate that with a color image. Toggle Main Navigation. Then we applied delaunay triangulation and voronoi diagram for the points. Prerequisite: Image Steganography Introduction, Implementation using Python. get a image and divided it into small box. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. c++ image matlab signal-processing. here is one tutorial- matlab to vhdl conversion. Unfortunately, for me it did not work — i copied the tifflib to my folder and it is running. It can be found on github. Open TIF image stack. I have written a code which is making a 3D array of it but I am not getting a correct plot of all the stack as a 3D cube. I am also given an eigenvector matrix ($8464*8464$) in the image space of the 10 images. MATLAB is the best language for learning image processing. I need to scale the values of two images (imgA and imgB). The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: